Some Thoughts on Facultative and Obligatory Mixity after Singapore and COTIF, and before CETA

The conclusion of agreements as ‘mixed’, that is jointly by the European Union and its Member States, is a legal phenomenon peculiar to the EU legal order. Notwithstanding the almost complete silence of the Treaties on the point, mixity quickly became common practice for the Union and was, in most instances, readily accepted by its contractual partners. That does not mean, however, that mixity has not given rise, to date, to lengthy and often heated debates within, between and before the EU institutions.

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In Praise of Limiting Democracy: a Defense of ISDS

With the UK Parliament debating CETA and the CJEU hearing arguments on the compatibility of EU law with the dispute resolution provisions, investor-state dispute resolution (ISDS) is very much in the news again. Many seem to be concerned about the integrity of the nation state, the ability of the people (within national boundaries) to order and determine their fates. Why should we not view ISDS as a threat to national wellbeing? The reason is that sometimes we need constraints on sovereign discretion.

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„Reformierter“ Investitionsschutz in TTIP: Zwei Schritte voran – und gegen die Wand

Die Europäische Kommission verspielt gerade ihre Chance, das umstrittene internationale Investitionsschutzrecht ernsthaft zu reformieren und am Gemeinwohl auszurichten. In ihrem nun vorgelegtem Vorschlag an die USA für ein Investitionsschutzkapitel in TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) lässt sie die wesentlichen Probleme des Investitionsschutzrechts weitgehend unberührt. Nur auf den ersten Blick bietet sie Lösungen etwa für die strukturelle Einseitigkeit des Schiedsgerichtssystems.

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The Proposed TTIP Tribunal and the Court of Justice: What Limits to Investor-State Dispute Settlement under EU Constitutional Law?

In its controversial Opinion 2/13, the European Court of Justice has rejected the accession of the EU to the European Convention on Human Rights. The constitutional hurdles the CJEU has erected in this opinion are not only relevant in the area of human rights, but also require us to think hard about the EU constitutionality of the suggested TTIP Tribunal, or any other mechanism of investor-state dispute settlement under future EU international investment agreements. To reduce this uncertainty it may be advisable to request the CJEU through an advisory opinion.

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