30 Juli 2021

Academic Freedom as Democracy’s Last Defense

Open Letter in support of Professor Conrado Hübner Mendes

The right to demand a justification from law enforcement officers who fail to abide by the rule of law is part of the very essence of academic freedom. Without the entitlement to freely criticize and hold legal authorities accountable for their deeds, one can no longer speak in terms of democratic erosion, for there will be no democracy to erode.

Brazil’s Prosecutor General of the Republic, Augusto Aras (the highest prosecutorial authority in the country), and the Federal Supreme Court Justice Kassio Nunes have been showing little respect for the principle of accountability. Despite criticism of their ethical conduct in high profile legal cases with serious impact on Brazilian politics, they pressed criminal charges against Professor Conrado Hübner Mendes, from the University of São Paulo, and attempted to punish him for expressing perfectly legitimate opinions.

The signers of this letter, legal scholars from several regions of the world, hereby express their concern about the endurance of Brazilian democracy and the severe threat to the freedom of expression imposed on Mendes for the opinions expressed in newspaper articles published at Folha de São Paulo.

Criticizing public authorities for any decisions related to their office is a fundamental right, especially when these decisions imply the prosecution of the enemies of the president who appointed this authority to the office or the acquittal of his allies.

In a politically sensitive case, if a prosecutor changes his view about the illegality of a certain action (like the Prosecutor General of the Republic did with regards to corruption accusations against the Chairman of the House of Representatives, after this authority created a large political alliance with President Jair Bolsonaro), or delivers opinions in criminal trials in direct opposition to the case law of the Full Bench of the Federal Supreme Court  (like the Prosecutor General of the Republic did in a case against Jair Bolsonaro’s eldest son, Senator Flávio Bolsonaro), the right to express one’s judgments about these measures and demand for a public justification is an essential part of the freedom of academics, journalists and public intellectuals.

By the same token, if a Justice in the Supreme Court, in opposition to the case-law of his own court, issues a restraining order on Saturday to be executed on Sunday morning, in a case pending for more than five months, academics have a fundamental right to call it “chicanery”. Justice Kassio Nunes acted exactly in this way when he annulled several municipal laws forbidding religious celebrations in the Eastern holiday due to the pandemic of COVID-19. His restraining order was annulled by the Full Bench of the Federal Supreme Court less than a week after it was delivered, but it played a crucial role in reinforcing President Jair Bolsonaro’s COVID-denialism and authorized thousands of people to gather in poorly ventilated indoor spaces while Brazil was suffering 4,000 COVID-related deaths per day.

If academic freedom is impaired and respected intellectuals like Professor Conrado Hubner Mendes are illegitimately punished, Brazil will be taking further steps toward autocracy and authoritarianism, making it even more difficult to call a halt to this tragedy.

This letter is based on a more detailed statement published in Portuguese at Folha de São Paulo and was signed by more than 280 academics.

29 July 2021,

 

Signed.

Chantal Mouffe – University of Westminster

Joshua Braver – University of Wisconsin

Stephen Gardbaum – University of California in Los Angeles

Imer Flores – Universidad Autónoma de México

Samuel Issacharoff – New York University

Adrienne Stone – University of Melbourne

Wojciech Sadurski – University of Sydney and Centre for Europe at the University of Warsaw

Heidi Hurd – University of Illinois

Brian H. Bix- University of Minnesota

Ruth Chang – University of Oxford

Raul Sanchez Urribarri – La Trobe University

Sanford Levinson – University of Texas

Liam B Murphy – New York University

Timea Drinoczi – University of Pecs

Julio Ríos Figueroa – Centro de Investigación y Docencia (CIDE)

Gerardo Pisarello – Universidad de Barcelona

Damian Loreti – Universidad de Buenos Aires

Emílio Camacho – Universidad Nacional de Assumpción

Adoración Guamán – Universidad de Valencia

Maria José Fariñas – Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Baltasar Garzón – Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro – Chair, UN independent international commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, Geneva

Ana Micaela Alterio – Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México

Juan González Bertomeu – Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM

Jorge Ernesto Roa Roa – Universidad Externado de Colombia

David Landau – Florida State University College of Law

Rogers M. Smith – University of Pennsylvania

Martin Flaherty – Princeton University

Rosalind Dixon – University of New South Wales

Tom Ginsburg – University of Chicago Law School

Anthony Pereira – King’s College London

Octávio Ferraz – King’s College London

Tom Gerald Daly – University of Melbourne

Jamie Mayerfeld – University of Washington

Howard Schweber – Univ. Wisconsin-Madison

Dragoljub Popović – Union University School of Law Belgrade, Serbia / Former judge of the European Court of Human Rights

Margaret Martin – Western University

Andrei Marmor – Cornell University

Matija Milos – University of Rijeka

Bjarne Melkevik – University of Laval

Gábor Halmai – European Univesity Institute

Stephen Holmes – New York University

Grainne De Burca – New York University

Max Steuer – O.P. Jindal Global University, Jindal Global Law School

Juan Antonio García Amado – University of León

Pierluigi Chiassoni – University of Genova

Pierre Brunet, Ecole de droit de la Sorbonne/Sorbonne Law School

Neil Walker – University of Edinburgh

Geroge Pavlakos – University of Glasgow

Veronica Rodiguez-Blanco – University of Surrey

Manuel Atienza – University of Alicante

Errol P. Mendes – University of Ottawa

Mathew Kramer – University of Cambridge

David Duarte – University of Lisbon

Kevin Toh – University College of London

Jaap Hage – University of Maastricht

Mark Graber – University of Maryland

Giovanni Batista Ratti – University of Genova

Marcin Gorski – University of Lodz

Dennis Patterson – Rutgers University and University of Surrey

Irene Spigno, Academia Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, Mexico

Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo – Universidad de Talca

Mark Rush – Washington and Lee University

Paila Alexandra Sierra Zamora – Universidad Católica de Colombia

Giuseppe Martinico – Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa

Roberto Toniatti – Emeritus Professor – University of Trento

Charles Barzun – University of Virginia

Roberto Gargarella – University of Buenos Aires

Gary J. Jacobsohn. University of Taxas in Austin

Antonia Baraggia – University of Milan

Hugo Tórtora Aravena – Universidad de Playa Ancha Valparaíso

Diana Espino Tapia, Universidad Regiomontana

Pieter-Augustijn Van Malleghem – UC Louvain

Lucia Corso – University of Enna

William D. Araiza – Brooklyn Law School

Gerald J. Postema – Emeritus – University of North Carolina

Jeremy Waldron – New York University

Leonardo García Jaramillo – Universidad EAFIT

Antonella Sciortino – Unipa – Università degli studi di Palermo

Alfredo Contieri – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Lucas Arrimada – Universidad de Buenos Aires

Angela María Jimena Jiménez García – Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

Augusto Martín de la Vega – Universidad de Salamanca

César Montaño Galarza, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar

Cristhian Pereira Otero – Universidad de Nariño

Daniel E. Florez Muñoz – Universidad de Cartagena

David Mendieta – Universidad de Medellín

Diana Espino Tapia – Universidad Regiomontana

Elsa Guerra Rodríguez – Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar

Ena Carnero Arroyo – Universidad Nacional de Trujillo

Felipe Clavijo Ospina – Universidad El Bosque

Gloria Patricia Lopera Mesa – Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano

Gonzalo Ramirez Cleves – Universidad Externado de Colombia

Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo – Universidad de Talca

Hugo Tórtora Aravena – Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaiso

Liliana Estupiñán Achury – Universidad Libre de Colombia

Luis Domingo Gómez Maldonado – Universidad Santo Tomás y Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano

Marcos Criado de Diego – Universidad Externado de Colombia y Universidad de Extremadura

Maria Cristina Gomez Isaza – Universidad de Antioquia

Marisol Anglés Hernández – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Mary Luz Tobón Tobón – Universidad Libre de Colombia

Miriam Mora – Universidad de la República Uruguay

Paila Alexandra Sierra Zamora – Universidad Católica de Colombia

Rodrigo Uprimny – Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Vicente Solano Paucay – Universidad de Cuenca

Yudy Andrea Carrillo – Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia

João Pedroso – Universidade de Coimbra

Helena Guimarães – ISMAI

Gabriella De Giorgi Cezzi – Università del Salento

Francesco Tuccari – Università del Salento

Roberto Niembro Ortega – Universidad Iberoamericana

Priscila Machado Martins – Universidad de los Andes

María Alexandra Ruíz – Universidad de Nariño

María Elena Attard Bellido – Universidad Mayor de San Andrés

Jairo Vladimir Llano Franco – Universidad Libre de Colombia

Ofelia Dorado Zúñiga – Universidad Libre de Cali

Wil Waluchow – Emeritus – McMaster University

Jim Gardner – University of Buffalo

Erin F. Delaney – Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Lisa Hilbink – University of Minnesota

Annarita Iacopino – Universitá Europea di Roma

Ornella Spataro, Universitá di Palermo

Karl-Heinz Ladeur – University of Hamburg

Italo Birocchi, Universitá di Roma, La Sapienza.

Andrés Botero Bernal – Universidad Industrial de Santander

Yezid Carrillo De la Rosa – Universidad de Cartagena y Universidad Libre sede Cartagena

Manuela Royo – Universidad de Talca

António José Avelãs Nunes – Professor Catedrático Jubilado da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Coimbra

Boaventura de Souza Santos – Universidade de Coimbra

Brendon Swedlow – Northern Illinois University

Juan Gabriel Gómez Albarello – Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Angélica Cuellar Vázquez – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Chris Thornhill – University of Manchester

David Dyzenhaus – University of Toronto

Marcela Prieto Rudolphy – USC Gould School of Law

Johan Van der Walt – University of Luxembourg

Juan Gabriel Gómez Albarello – Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Paulo Barrozo – Boston College Law School

Tracy Lightcap – LaGrange College

Carlos Petit – Universidad de Huelva

Mauricio Garcia Villegas – Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Marco Goldoni – University of Glasgow

Sergio Pignuoli Ocampo – University of Buenos Aires

Cláudio Michelon – University of Edinburgh

Trevor Allan – University of Cambridge

Cormac Mac Amhlaigh – University of Edinburgh

Enrique Cáceres Nieto – Universidad Autónoma de Mexico

Wenzel Matiaske – University of Hamburg

Richard Albert – University of Texas at Austin

Martina Caroni – University of Lucerne

Bruce Ackerman – Yale University1)For institutional identification only; the university  does not give its institutional endorsement to the views expressed by its faculty members

René Kuppe – Universidade de Viena

Obi Nwakanma – University of Central Florida

Aldo Mascareño – Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez

Yvette Christianse – University of Columbia

Darío Rodríguez – Universidad Diego Portales

Daniel B. Rodriguez – Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Sonwabile Mnwana – University of Fort Hare

Christoph Möllers – Humboldt University

Katrin Kinzelbach, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg

Andraž Teršek, University of Primorska

Malcolm Feeley – University of California at Berkeley

Nicole Roughan – University of Auckland

Marina Gascón Abellán – Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

Bertil Emrah Oder -Koç Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi, Turkey

Stefan Voigt – University of Hamburg

Tamás Barcsi, University of Pécs

Patricia Popelier – University of Antwerp

Scot M. Peterson – University of Oxford

Kenneth Ehrenberg – University of Surrey

Gerd Grözinger – Europa-University Flensburg

Kirsty Keywood – University of Manchester

Günther Ortmann – University Witten-Herdecke

Dorothea Alewell – University of Hamburg

Michael Riegner – Humboldt University Berlin

Philipp Dann – Humboldt University Belin

Siri Gloppen – University of Bergen

Michaela Hailbronner – University of Giessen

James Fowkes – University of Münster

Dieter Grimm – University Humboldt

Werner Nienhüser – University Duisburg

Martin Krygier – UNSW Sydney

To co-sign this open letter, please leave a comment with your name and affiliation!

References

References
1 For institutional identification only; the university  does not give its institutional endorsement to the views expressed by its faculty members

SUGGESTED CITATION  , : Academic Freedom as Democracy’s Last Defense: Open Letter in support of Professor Conrado Hübner Mendes, VerfBlog, 2021/7/30, https://verfassungsblog.de/academic-freedom-as-democracys-last-defense/, DOI: 10.17176/20210731-015921-0.

116 Comments

  1. Thomas R Bustamante Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:20 - Reply

    I want to be the first Brazilian to sign it. All my support for Conrado

    • Ligia Fabris Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:17 - Reply

      FGV Direito Rio

    • Alessandra Maia Terra de Faria Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 02:47 - Reply

      Alessandra Maia Terra de Faria – Social Sciences Puc-Rio University / PPGCS – UFRRJ University

    • Flávio Rocha de Oliveira Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 15:38 - Reply

      Professor,
      Federal University of ABC – UFABC – Brazil

    • Jânia Saldanha Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 22:39 - Reply

      Unisinos- Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos

    • Ricardo Evandro Santos Martins Mi 4 Aug 2021 at 05:59 - Reply

      Legal Sciences Institute, Federal University of Para (UFPa), Brazil.

  2. Paolo Sandro Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:21 - Reply

    Paolo Sandro, University of Salford

  3. Fabio de Sa e Silva Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:21 - Reply

    University of Oklahoma

    • Adam Shinar Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:48 - Reply

      Please add my name: Adam Shinar, IDC Herzliya

      • Joana Machado Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 19:50 - Reply

        Joana Machado, UFJF

  4. Rubens Glezer Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:23 - Reply

    Rubens Glezer – FGV DIREITO SP

  5. Francesco Palermo Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:48 - Reply

    Francesco Palermo, University of Verona and Eurac Research

  6. Jo Shaw Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 16:59 - Reply

    Jo Shaw, University of Edinburgh

  7. Diego Moreno Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:01 - Reply

    I support the letter
    Chair, Paraguayan Institute of Constitutional Lae

  8. Heinz Klug, University of Wisconsin Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:07 - Reply

    Please add my name

    • Fabricio Telo Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:22 - Reply

      Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Canada

    • Marco Navas Alvear Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:37 - Reply

      Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, sede Ecuador

  9. Francisco Soto Barrientos Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:17 - Reply

    Me gustaría suscribir a la carta. Desde la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Chile. Un abrazo grande a Conrado y su lucha (que es la lucha de todos!!)

  10. Helmut Aust Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:18 - Reply

    Helmut Aust, Freie Universität Berlin

  11. verónica potes Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:23 - Reply

    suscribo la carta.

    profesora, Universidad Central del Ecuador

    • Juliano Zaiden Benvindo Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 22:15 - Reply

      Juliano Zaiden Benvindo – University of Brasília

  12. Gabriel Noll Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:25 - Reply

    Gabriel Noll, Humboldt University Berlin

    • Carolina Cyrillo - Universidade Federal do Rio de Jeneiro Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 18:50 - Reply

      My support. Carolina Cyrillo (UFRJ/UBA)

  13. Diego González Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:46 - Reply

    Diego González, Universidad Externado de Colombia

  14. Sujit Choudhry, Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 17:48 - Reply

    Sujit Choudhry, Barrister, Huron Chambers

  15. Vanessa Oliveira Batista Berner Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 18:01 - Reply

    Vanessa Batista Berner – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    • Christian Lynch Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 20:14 - Reply

      Subscrevo com ênfase

  16. Glauco Salomão Leite Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 18:49 - Reply

    Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil.

    • Felipe Oliveira de Sousa Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:51 - Reply

      Felipe Oliveira de Sousa – Ruhr University Bochum

  17. Emilio Peluso Neder Meyer Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 19:03 - Reply

    UFMG. Força, Conrado!

  18. Paulo Ricardo Schier - Centro Universitário UniBrasil Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 19:17 - Reply

    Paulo Ricardo Schier – Centro Universitário UniBrasil

  19. JORGE ERNESTO ROA ROA Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 19:22 - Reply

    Jorge Ernesto Roa ROA
    Universidad Externado de Colombia

  20. Luiz Fernando Castilhos Silveira Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 19:59 - Reply

    Universidade de Caxias do Sul

  21. Rike Krämer-Hoppe Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 20:08 - Reply

    Ruhr-University-Bochum

  22. Irene Parra Prieto Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 20:12 - Reply

    Irene Parra Prieto- ITAM

  23. Ulisses Levy Silvério dos Reis Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 20:27 - Reply

    Ulisses Levy Silvério dos Reis – Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido

  24. Anna Luisa Walter de Santana Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 20:57 - Reply

    Anna Luisa Walter de Santana – Universidad Los Andes, Colombia

  25. Luis Renato Vedovato Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 21:11 - Reply

    Luís Renato Vedovato – UNICAMP

  26. Orlando Villas Bôas Filho Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 21:14 - Reply

    Universidade de São Paulo

  27. Jean-Paul Veiga da Rocha Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 21:16 - Reply

    Professor of Law, USP (Brazil)

  28. Antonio Rodrigues de Freitas Júnior Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 21:18 - Reply

    I sign it strongly convinced: Antonio Rodrigues de Freitas Júnior; Associate Professor, University of Sao Paulo School of Law.

  29. Jean-Paul Veiga da Rocha Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 21:20 - Reply

    Professor of Law, University of São Paulo – USP (Brazil)

    • Francisco Estrada Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 06:11 - Reply

      Todo mi apoyo
      Francisco Estrada Vásquez, Chile

  30. Salvador Millaleo Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 21:47 - Reply

    Salvador Millaleo Hernández, Dr. Phil.
    Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Derecho

  31. Lucas Pereira Rezende Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 22:00 - Reply

    There’s no democracy without academic freedom anywhere. Prof. Hübner is doing a terrific job reporting the wrongdoings of Bolsonaro and his gang. Thanks for this important initiative!

    Federal University of Santa Catarina

  32. Marcus Bechara Sanchez Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 22:06 - Reply

    Marcus Bechara Sanchez – Universidade de São Paulo

  33. Vinicius Tavares de Oliveira Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 22:39 - Reply

    I would like to sing as well.

    Vinicius Tavares de Oliveira – PUC Minas

  34. André de Macedo Duarte Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:01 - Reply

    I’m full-time Professor at the Philosophy Department, Federal University of Paraná UFPR, Brazil. I agree to sign the letter.

    • Rubens Barbosa Cortes Macedo aí So 1 Aug 2021 at 03:54 - Reply

      Rubens Barbosa Cortes Macedo, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

  35. Gianluigi Palonbella Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:02 - Reply

    Conrado is not alone. We support his words and his ideas. Gianluigi Palombella

  36. Mauro Victoria Soares Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:16 - Reply

    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – Brazil

  37. Ashwini Vasanthakumar Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:29 - Reply

    Please add my name.

    Ashwini Vasanthakumar
    Queen’s Law School

  38. Silvana Goes Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:39 - Reply

    Free words = free country

  39. Vera Karam de Chueiri Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:40 - Reply
  40. José Reinaldo de Lima Lopes Fr 30 Jul 2021 at 23:42 - Reply

    Universidade de São Paulo

  41. Luana Renostro Heinen Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 00:00 - Reply

    Luana Renostro Heinen – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

  42. Daniela de Oliveira Miranda Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 00:06 - Reply

    Daniela Miranda – Universidade de Caxias do Sul

  43. Raoni Bielschowsky Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 00:53 - Reply

    Raoni Bielschowsky, UFU

  44. Fernando Atria Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 00:57 - Reply

    All my support to prof. Hubner
    Fernando Atria
    Professor of Law
    Universidad de Chile
    Member of Chile’s Constitutional Convention

  45. Sergio Tuthill Stanicia Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 02:48 - Reply

    PhD, University of São Paulo – USP

  46. João Gabriel Caetano Leite Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 02:58 - Reply

    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro

  47. Ana Virgínia Moreira Gomes Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 03:02 - Reply

    Ana Virgínia Moreira Gomes – Universidade de Fortaleza, Brasil.

  48. Daniela Campello Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 03:03 - Reply

    Politóloga, FGV

    • Marcela de Albuquerque Santos Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 13:54 - Reply

      Marcela de Albuquerque Santos – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUCSP)

  49. Gean Alves Fernandes de Souza Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 03:12 - Reply

    Gean Alves Fernandes de Souza

    Universidade Federal Fluminense

  50. Adil Haque Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 03:37 - Reply

    Adil Haque – Rutgers University

  51. Tania Busch Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 03:51 - Reply

    Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile

  52. Flávio Martins Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 05:17 - Reply

    Flávio Martins
    Faculdade Damasio

    Todo meu apoio ao professor Conrado. Tive o desprazer de figurar numa lista de “detratores” desse Governo, mas nada se compara a perseguição covarde ao professor Conrado. Estamos juntos!

  53. Jaime Olaiz - Universidad Panamericana, México Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 05:19 - Reply

    I support this letter.

    • Fraya Frehse Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 10:19 - Reply

      Important initiative!

  54. Radha (Radhakrishnan) Persaud -- Professor, York University, Toronto Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 07:48 - Reply

    Please add my name to the signatures!

    While I understand, respect and appreciate Mark Scarberry’s concerns, I believe that, notwithstanding the purported incompleteness of Thomas Bustamante’s statements and the apparent complexity of the alleged conduct, on balance, it may not be injudicious to place trust –as many have done thus far–in those who seek to advance the principles and values of constitutional democracy which is a work in progress. It is perhaps not inaccurate to say that observers of the democratic processes have a duty and responsibility to act to preclude the corrosive institutional elements that are manifested from time to time. Transparency, accountability and responsibility for one’s actions in public office must be meaningful under the rule of law. Mark’s letters, which express valid concerns, are perhaps illustrative of the very academic freedom that Thomas speaks of in his letter. As a political scientist steeped in constitutional law, as a professor of public law and the judicial process, and as someone who has intervened in constitutional crises in aid of political-legal conflict resolution, I am happy to add my name to Thomas’ list in support of Conrado Mendes.
    Best wishes to all,
    Radha

    Dr. Radha (Radhakrishnan) Persaud (Prof.)
    Department of Political Science (Glendon Campus)
    School of Public Policy and Administration (Main Campus)
    York University
    2275 Bayview Avenue,
    Toronto, Ontario. M4N 3M6
    Tel: Office: 416-736-2100 Ext. 88595
    Fax: 416-487-6852
    E-mail:rpersaud@glendon.yorku.ca
    Member of the Editorial Board
    Journal of Parliamentary and Political Law

  55. Massimo Fichera Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 09:08 - Reply

    Massimo Fichera, University of Helsinki

  56. Tom Flynn Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 10:15 - Reply

    Tom Flynn
    School of Law
    University of Essex
    UK

  57. marta maroni Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 14:53 - Reply

    Marta Maroni
    Faculty of Law
    University of Helsinki

  58. Gustavo Gerhardt Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 15:34 - Reply

    Obrigado a quem reage em nome dos brasileiros encolhidos em sua indiferença, medo ou cansaço. Eu sou um simples estudante de Direito, e as instituições no Brasil estão imperdoavelmente omissas.
    Gustavo Gerhardy, UNISINOS, Rio Grande do Sul, BRASIL.

    Thank you to those who react on behalf of Brazilians cowering in their indifference, fear or fatigue. I am a simple law student, and institutions in Brazil are unforgivably silent.
    Gustavo Gerhardy, UNISINOS, Rio Grande do Sul, BRAZIL.

  59. Horacio Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 15:45 - Reply

    Horácio Lopes Mousinho Neiva, PhD candidate, University of São Paulo

  60. Matheus Vinicius de Oliveira Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 15:50 - Reply

    Faculdade de Direito de Itu

  61. Pedro Ian Ramalho Luz de Castro Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 16:14 - Reply

    Pedro Luz de Castro – University of Michigan

  62. Melina Rocha Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 16:32 - Reply

    All my support to Prof. Conrado.
    Melina Rocha
    York University

  63. Diego Werneck Arguelhes Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 16:44 - Reply

    Insper – Institute for Education and Research, São Paulo (Brazil)

  64. Agnieszka Bień-Kacała Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 16:49 - Reply

    Agnieszka Bień-Kacała, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland

  65. Kimmo Nuotio Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 18:00 - Reply

    Kimmo Nuotio, professor, University of Helsinki

  66. Kara Woodbury-Smith Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 19:33 - Reply

    Kara Woodbury-Smith, Durham University

  67. Sandra Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 20:32 - Reply

    Quero colocar minha assinatura na carta, em apoio ao professor Conrado hubner

  68. Daniel T Peres Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 21:56 - Reply

    I support this letter!

  69. Caio whitacker Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 22:05 - Reply

    Estamos contigo Conrado! Força!

  70. Manuel García-Mansilla, Dean, Law School, Universidad Austral Sa 31 Jul 2021 at 23:43 - Reply

    Please add my name. Thank you.

  71. Gustavo Torres So 1 Aug 2021 at 02:47 - Reply

    Professor of Law at FATEPI (Brazil)

  72. Mariana Mota Prado So 1 Aug 2021 at 03:29 - Reply

    Professor of Law
    University of Toronto
    Canada

  73. Maria da Glória Motta Garcia So 1 Aug 2021 at 05:03 - Reply

    Universidade de São Paulo

  74. Pedro E de Felicio So 1 Aug 2021 at 08:33 - Reply

    Veterinary Medicine Doctor, M.S., Ph.D., retired professor at UNICAMP – University of Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Always in defense of democracy, against minimum signs of tyranny

  75. Valério De Patta Pillar So 1 Aug 2021 at 15:32 - Reply

    I also subscribe.
    Valério De Patta Pillar, Professor, Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre

  76. David Bilchitz So 1 Aug 2021 at 20:04 - Reply

    Prof David Bilchitz, Professor of Fundamental Rights and Constitutional Law, University of Johannesburg and University of Reading; Director, South African Institute for Advanced Constitutional, Public, Human Rights and Constitutional Law; Vice-President, International Association of Constitutional Law

  77. Louise du Toit - Stellenbosch University So 1 Aug 2021 at 21:10 - Reply

    In strong support.

  78. Kai Möller Mo 2 Aug 2021 at 12:07 - Reply

    Kai Möller, London Economics and Political Science (LSE)

  79. Wanda Capeller Mo 2 Aug 2021 at 14:36 - Reply

    I strongly support this letter
    Emeritus Professor Sociology of Law SciencesPo Toulouse – France

  80. Hans Lindahl Mo 2 Aug 2021 at 14:59 - Reply

    I strongly support this Open Letter.
    Hans Lindahl
    Chair of the Philosophy of Law, Tilburg University
    Chair of Global Law, Queen Mary University of London

  81. Alejandro Montiel Alvarez Mo 2 Aug 2021 at 16:55 - Reply

    Alejandro Montiel Alvarez
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

  82. Bruno Caramelli Mo 2 Aug 2021 at 22:37 - Reply

    My support for you Prof. Conrado. Inside and outside the University.

  83. Gerald Rosenberg Di 3 Aug 2021 at 14:17 - Reply

    Criticism of all governmental officials, including judges, is the prerequisite for democratic government.

    Gerald Rosenberg
    Emeritus
    Law, Political Science
    University of Chicago

  84. Daniel Wang Di 3 Aug 2021 at 15:37 - Reply

    Fundação Getúlio Vargas

  85. Anna Tarnowska Di 3 Aug 2021 at 17:12 - Reply

    With strong support: Anna Tarnowska, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland

  86. Igor Kravets, Novosibirsk State University Mi 4 Aug 2021 at 09:18 - Reply

    I strongly support this letter (Open Letter in support of Professor Conrado Hübner Mendes)!

  87. LEANDRO OTTO HOFSTÄTTER Mi 4 Aug 2021 at 16:32 - Reply

    I vehemently support this letter!
    LAW School – Faculdade IELUSC
    Brazil

  88. Francisca Pou Do 5 Aug 2021 at 11:31 - Reply

    Francisca Pou, ITAM Law School
    All my support

  89. Flavio Wolf de Aguiar, retired professor, University of São Paulo. Do 5 Aug 2021 at 15:22 - Reply

    I support freedom of expression and prof. Hübner Mendes.

  90. Zinka Ziebell Freie Universität Berlin Do 5 Aug 2021 at 16:55 - Reply

    All my support to Prof. Conrado.

  91. Hans Petter Graver Fr 6 Aug 2021 at 08:31 - Reply

    Please add my name to the list.

    Hans Petter Graver
    professor, Department of Private Law, University of Oslo

  92. João Vitor Cardoso Fr 6 Aug 2021 at 18:35 - Reply

    Pablo Ruiz-Table, Dean of University of Chile School of Law
    Javier Couso Salas, Utrecht University School of Law, Universidad Diego Portales
    Joel Colón-Ríos, University of Wellington Osgoode Hall Law School

  93. Eduardo Jorge Prats Sa 7 Aug 2021 at 14:31 - Reply

    Reply
    I support freedom of expression and prof. Hübner Mendes.
    Eduardo Jorge Prats, profesor de Derecho Constitucional, PUCMM, Rep. Dominicana

  94. Jeff King Di 10 Aug 2021 at 00:50 - Reply

    Jeff King, Professor of Law, University College London

  95. Anne van Aaken Mi 11 Aug 2021 at 12:49 - Reply

    I fully support the letter
    University of Hamburg

  96. Jeffrey L. Dunoff Do 12 Aug 2021 at 20:30 - Reply

    Please add my name in support of this letter.

    Jeffrey L. Dunoff
    Laura H. Carnell Professor o Law
    Temple University Beasley School of Law

  97. Eugenio Carlos Arima Do 12 Aug 2021 at 23:12 - Reply

    The concrete threat coming from the judiciary, worse, by a judge of the highest constitutional court in the country and by the attorney general, appointed for these fundamental positions by a president, who in his actions and words, does not show respect for constitutional guarantees, is an affront not only to the honored professor Conrado Mendes, but to all the citizens of my country. Our country is under threat of a coup d’état, and the judiciary has been, at best, negligent. In the worst of these, it is a sharer

  98. MARIA CLARA SALES CARNEIRO SAMPAIO Mo 16 Aug 2021 at 01:20 - Reply

    Please and my name
    Maria Clara Sales Carneiro Sampaio
    Professor of History
    Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará (UNIFESSPA)

  99. Evan Rosevear Mo 23 Aug 2021 at 07:08 - Reply

    Global Academic Fellow
    University of Hong Kong

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